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Orwell Diaries

‘Eric Arthur Blair’ born in (1903) known by his pen name ‘George Orwell’, was an ‘English’ novelist, essayist, journalist and critic. His work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism, and commitment to democratic socialism.

Commonly ranked as one of the most influential ‘English’ writers of the ’20th century’ and as one of the most important chroniclers of ‘English’ culture of his generation. During most of his career, ‘Orwell’ was best known for his journalism, in essays, reviews, columns in newspapers and magazines and in his books of reportage: ‘Down and Out in Paris and London’ (describing a period of poverty in these cities), The Road to Wigan Pier (describing the living conditions of the poor in northern ‘England’, and the class divide generally) and ‘Homage to Catalonia’.

According to ‘Irving Howe’, ‘Orwell’ was “the best English essayist since Hazlitt, perhaps since Dr Johnson”. ‘Coming Up for Air’, his last novel before ‘World War II’ is the most “English” of his novels; alarums of war mingle with images of idyllic ‘Thames-side Edwardian’ childhood of protagonist ‘George Bowling’.

In an autobiographical piece that ‘Orwell’ sent to the editors of ‘Twentieth Century Authors’ in (1940), he wrote: “The writers I care about most and never grow tired of are: ‘Shakespeare’, ‘Swift’, ‘Fielding’, ‘Dickens’, ‘Charles Reade’, ‘Flaubert’ and, among modern writers, ‘James Joyce’, ‘T. S. Eliot’ and ‘D. H. Lawrence’.

Pinky Bly

‘Nellie Bly’ was the pen name of journalist ‘Elizabeth Jane Cochrane’ born in ‘Cochran Mills’ (1864), today part of the ‘Pittsburgh’ suburb of ‘Burrell Township, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania’.

She was a ground-breaking reporter known for a record-breaking trip around the world in 72 days, in emulation of ‘Jules Verne’ fictional character ‘Phileas Fogg’.

In (1880), ‘Cochrane’ and her family moved to ‘Pittsburgh’. An aggressively misogynistic column titled “What Girls Are Good For” in the ‘Pittsburgh Dispatch’ prompted her to write a fiery rebuttal to the editor under the pseudonym “Lonely Orphan Girl”.

As a writer, ‘Bly’ focused her early work for the ‘Dispatch’ on the plight of working women, writing a series of investigative articles on female factory workers. But editorial pressure pushed her to the so-called “women’s pages” to cover fashion, society, and gardening, the usual role for female journalists of the day.

In (1888), ‘Bly’ suggested to her editor at the ‘New York World’ that she take a trip around the world, attempting to turn the fictional “Around the World in Eighty Days” into fact for the first time.

In (1895) ‘Nellie Bly’ married millionaire manufacturer ‘Robert Seaman’, who was 40 years her senior. She retired from journalism, and became the president of the ‘Iron Clad Manufacturing Co.’, which made steel containers such as milk cans and boilers.