Category Archives: History

Eagle ’69

‘Apollo 11’ was the first lunar-landing mission. Launched on July 16 (1969), the crew of ‘Neil A. Armstrong’, ‘Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr.’, and ‘Michael Allen Collins’ flew the spacecraft ‘Columbia’ (CSM) and ‘Eagle’ (LM). On July 20 (1969), ‘Armstrong’ and ‘Aldrin’ landed the ‘Eagle’ at the relatively flat and unobstructed Tranquillity site on the ‘Moon’, while ‘Collins’ remained in the ‘CSM’.

The ‘LM’ spent 21 hours 36 minutes on the lunar surface, and the crew spent 2 hours 31 minutes outside the ‘LM’ in a local area excursion on foot to a distance of approximately 50 m (160 ft) from Tranquillity Base. ‘Armstrong’ and ‘Aldrin’ evaluated the capability of working on the lunar surface, established a small scientific station, and collected 22 kg (49 lb) of lunar rocks and soil.

Using the descent stage of the ‘LM’ as a launching platform, the ascent stage of the ‘LM’ took off from the ‘Moon’ surface to rendezvous and dock with the ‘CSM’. The spacecraft departed lunar orbit over two days after arrival. This eight-day mission landed and was recovered safely in the ‘Pacific Ocean’. As a precautionary measure, the astronauts were quarantined for 14 days.


Mac 1984

In (1977) ‘Apple’ introduced the ‘Apple II’, a personal computer able to generate color graphics, with its own keyboard, power supply, and eight slots for peripheral devices, which gave users wide possibilities for add-on devices and software programs.

‘Apple’ established its corporate headquarters in ‘Cupertino’ in (1978). The ‘Apple III’ computer, introduced in (1980), sold poorly because of hardware problems and a high price. With ‘Apple II’ sales soaring, in (1982) ‘Apple’ became the first personal-computer company to record annual sales of $1 billion.

In (1983) ‘Apple’ introduced the ‘Lisa’, a personal computer designed for business use that incorporated a handheld mouse to select commands and control an on-screen cursor. The ‘Lisa’ was followed in (1984) by the ‘Macintosh’ personal computer, based on the 68000 microprocessor manufactured by ‘Motorola’. Like the ‘Lisa’, the ‘Macintosh’, also known as the ‘Mac’, incorporated a graphical user interface, which made the computer easy to operate for the novice user.

‘Apple’ entered the office market with the introduction of its ‘LaserWriter’ printer in (1985) and ‘Macintosh Plus’ computer in (1986), a combination that launched the desktop publishing revolution.

Although the company prospered in the early (1980), ‘Wozniak’ left ‘Apple’ in (1985) to start a company of his own. That same year disappointing sales and internal wrangling led to restructuring, the company’s first layoffs, and ‘Jobs’ departure from the company. ‘John Sculley’, whom ‘Jobs’ had hired in (1983) as ‘Apple’ president and chief executive officer, replaced ‘Jobs’ as chairman of the company’s board of directors.


High-Flyer

‘Kobe Bryant’ played his entire 20-year career with the ‘Los Angeles Lakers’ of the ‘National Basketball Association’ (NBA). He entered the ‘NBA’ directly from high school and won five ‘NBA’ championships with the ‘Lakers’.

‘Bryant’ is an 18-time ‘All-Star’, 15-time member of the ‘All-NBA Team’, and 12-time member of the ‘All-Defensive’ team. He led the ‘NBA’ in scoring during two seasons, and ranks third on both the league’s all-time regular season scoring and all-time postseason scoring lists. He holds the ‘NBA’ record for the most seasons playing with one franchise for an entire career.

The son of former ‘NBA’ player ‘Joe Bryant’, ‘Kobe Bryant’ enjoyed a successful high school basketball career at ‘Lower Merion High School’ in ‘Pennsylvania’, where he was recognized as the top high school basketball player in the country. He declared for the ‘NBA’ draft upon graduation, and was selected with the 13th overall pick in the 1996 ‘NBA’ draft by the ‘Charlotte Hornets’, who traded him to the ‘Los Angeles Lakers’.

As a rookie, ‘Bryant’ earned himself a reputation as a high-flyer and a fan favorite by winning the (1997) ‘Slam Dunk Contest’, and he was named an ‘All-Star’ by his second season. Despite a feud between them, ‘Bryant’ and ‘Shaquille ONeal’ led the ‘Lakers’ to three consecutive championships from (2000-2002).


Hallowe’en 1745

Today ‘Halloween’ customs are thought to have been influenced by folk customs and beliefs from the ‘Celtic’ speaking countries, some of which have pagan roots, and others which may be rooted in ‘Celtic Christianity’. Indeed, ‘Jack Santino’, a folklorist, writes that “the sacred and the religious are a fundamental context for understanding Halloween in Northern Ireland, but there was throughout Ireland an uneasy truce existing between customs and beliefs associated with Christianity and those associated with religions that were Irish before Christianity arrived”.

Historian ‘Nicholas Rogers’, exploring the origins of ‘Halloween’, notes that while “some folklorists have detected its origins in the Roman feast of Pomona, the goddess of fruits and seeds, or in the festival of the dead called Parentalia, it is more typically linked to the Celtic festival of Samhain”, which comes from the ‘Old Irish’ for “summer’s end”. ‘Samhain’ was the first and most important of the four quarter days in the medieval ‘Gaelic’ calendar and was celebrated in ‘Ireland’, ‘Scotland’ and the ‘Isle of Man’.

It was held on or about 31 October – 1 November and kindred festivals were held at the same time of year by the ‘Brittonic Celts’; for example ‘Calan Gaeaf’ (in Wales), ‘Kalan Gwav’ (in Cornwall) and ‘Kalan Goañv’ (in Brittany). ‘Samhain’ and ‘Calan Gaeaf’ are mentioned in some of the earliest Irish and ‘Welsh’ literature. The names have been used by historians to refer to ‘Celtic Halloween’ customs up until the 19th century, and are still the ‘Gaelic’ and ‘Welsh’ names for ‘Halloween’.


Presidents Day

The federal holiday honoring ‘George Washington’ was originally implemented by an ‘Act of Congress’ in (1879) for government offices in ‘Washington’ and expanded in (1885) to include all federal offices. As the first federal holiday to honor an ‘American President’, the holiday was celebrated on ‘Washington’ actual birthday, February 22. On January 1, (1971), the federal holiday was shifted to the third Monday in February by the ‘Uniform Monday Holiday Act’. This date places it between February 15 and 21, which makes the name “Washington’s Birthday” in some sense a misnomer, since it never occurs on ‘Washington’ actual birthday, either February 11 or February 22.

Today, the February holiday has become well known for being a day in which many stores, especially car dealers, hold sales. Until the late (1980), corporate businesses generally closed on this day, similar to present corporate practices on ‘Memorial Day’ or ‘Christmas Day’. With the late (1980) advertising push to rename the holiday, more and more businesses are staying open on the holiday each year, and, as on ‘Veterans Day’ and ‘Columbus Day’, most delivery services outside of the ‘United States Postal Service’ now offer regular service on the day as well. Some public transit systems have also gone to regular schedules on the day. Many colleges and universities hold regular classes and operations on ‘Presidents Day’.

Various theories exist for this, one accepted reason being to make up for the growing trend of corporations to close in observance of the ‘Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr.’ Conversely, many schools and business formerly open on this day began closing after the observance of ‘Dr. King’ birthday holiday became prevalent. This was done in order not to diminish ‘Washington’ birthday in comparison to ‘King’. However, when reviewing the ‘Uniform Monday Holiday Bill’ debate of (1968) in the ‘Congressional Record’, one notes that supporters of the ‘Bill’ were intent on moving federal holidays to Mondays to promote business.

Both ‘Lincoln’ and ‘Washington’ birthdays are in February. In historical rankings of ‘Presidents of the United States’ both ‘Lincoln’ and ‘Washington’ are frequently, but not always, the top two presidents.

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Republican Politics

On November 6, (1860), ‘Lincoln’ was elected the 16th president of the ‘United States’, beating ‘Democrat’ ‘Stephen A. Douglas’, ‘John C. Breckinridge’ of the ‘Southern Democrats’, and ‘John Bell’ of the new ‘Constitutional Union Party’. He was the first president from the ‘Republican Party’. His victory was entirely due to the strength of his support in the ‘North’ and ‘West’; no ballots were cast for him in 10 of the 15 ‘Southern’ slave states, and he won only two of 996 counties in all the ‘Southern’ states.

On May 9–10, (1860), the ‘Illinois’ ‘Republican State Convention’ was held in ‘Decatur’. ‘Lincoln’ followers organized a campaign team led by ‘David Davis’, ‘Norman Judd’, ‘Leonard Swett’, and ‘Jesse DuBois’, and ‘Lincoln’ received his first endorsement to run for the presidency. On May 18, at the ‘Republican National Convention’ in ‘Chicago’, ‘Lincoln’ friends promised and manipulated and won the nomination on the third ballot, beating candidates such as ‘William H. Seward’ and ‘Salmon P. Chase’. A former ‘Democrat’, ‘Hannibal Hamlin’ of ‘Maine’, was nominated for ‘Vice President’ to balance the ticket. ‘Lincoln’ success depended on his reputation as a moderate on the slavery issue, and his strong support for ‘Whiggish’ programs of internal improvements and the protective tariff.

‘Abraham Lincoln’ was born February 12, (1809), the second child of ‘Thomas’ and ‘Nancy Hanks Lincoln’, in a one-room log cabin on the ‘Sinking Spring Farm’ in ‘Hardin County’, ‘Kentucky’. He is a descendant of ‘Samuel Lincoln’, who migrated from ‘Norfolk’, ‘England’ to ‘Hingham’, ‘Massachusetts’, in (1638). ‘Samuel’ grandson and great-grandson began the family western migration, which passed through ‘New Jersey’, ‘Pennsylvania’, and ‘Virginia’. ‘Lincoln’ paternal grandfather and namesake, ‘Captain Abraham Lincoln’, moved the family from Virginia to ‘Jefferson County’, ‘Kentucky’ in the (1780s).

‘Lincoln’ has been consistently ranked both by scholars and the public as one of the three greatest ‘United States’ presidents.

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Urban Legends

‘Santa Claus’, also known as ‘Saint Nicholas’, ‘Father Christmas’, ‘Kris Kringle’ and simply “Santa”, is a figure with legendary, historical and folkloric origins who, in many ‘Western’ cultures, is said to bring gifts to the homes of the good children on 24 December, the night before ‘Christmas Day’. Since the 20th century, in an idea popularized by the (1934) song “Santa Claus Is Coming to Town”, ‘Santa Claus’ has been believed to make a list of children throughout the world, categorizing them according to their behavior (“naughty” or “nice”) and to deliver presents, including toys, and candy to all of the well-behaved children in the world, and sometimes coal to the naughty children, on the single night of Christmas Eve.

‘L. Frank Baum The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus’, a (1902) children book, further popularized ‘Santa Claus’. Much of ‘Santa Claus’ mythos was not set in stone at the time, leaving ‘Baum’ to give his “Neclaus” (Necile’s Little One) a wide variety of immortal support, a home in the Laughing ‘Valley of Hohaho’, and ten reindeer—who could not fly, but leapt in enormous, flight-like bounds. ‘Claus’ immortality was earned, much like his title (“Santa”), decided by a vote of those naturally immortal. This work also established ‘Claus’ motives: a happy childhood among immortals. When Ak, Master Woodsman of the World, exposes him to the misery and poverty of children in the outside world, ‘Santa’ strives to find a way to bring joy into the lives of all children, and eventually invents toys as a principal means.

Images of ‘Santa Claus’ were further popularized through ‘Haddon Sundblom’ depiction of him for The ‘Coca-Cola Company’ Christmas advertising in the (1930). The popularity of the image spawned urban legends that ‘Santa Claus’ was invented by The ‘Coca-Cola Company’ or that ‘Santa’ wears red and white because they are the colors used to promote the ‘Coca-Cola’ brand. The image of ‘Santa Claus’ as a benevolent character became reinforced with its association with charity and philanthropy, particularly by organizations such as the ‘Salvation Army’. Volunteers dressed as ‘Santa Claus’ typically became part of fundraising drives to aid needy families at ‘Christmas’ time.

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