The memorial is a result of an early effort of ‘Alpha Phi Alpha’ fraternity to erect a monument to ‘King’. ‘King’ was a member of the fraternity, initiated into the organization via ‘Sigma Chapter’ on June 22, (1952), while he was attending ‘Boston University’.
‘King’ remained involved with the fraternity after the completion of his studies, including delivering the keynote speech at the fraternity ’50th anniversary’ banquet in (1956). In (1968), after ‘King’ assassination, ‘Alpha Phi Alpha’ proposed erecting a permanent memorial to ‘King’ in ‘Washington, D.C.’ The fraternity efforts gained momentum in (1986), after ‘King’ birthday was designated a national holiday. In (1996), the ‘United States Congress’ authorized the ‘Secretary of the Interior’ to permit ‘Alpha Phi Alpha’ to establish a memorial on ‘Department of Interior’ lands in the ‘District of Columbia’, giving the fraternity until November (2003) to raise $100 million and break ground.
In (1998), Congress authorized the fraternity to establish a foundation – the ‘Washington, D.C.’ ‘Martin Luther King Jr. National Memorial Project Foundation’ – to manage the memorial fundraising and design, and approved the building of the memorial on the ‘National Mall’.
In (1999), the ‘United States Commission of Fine Arts’ [CFA] and the ‘National Capital Planning Commission’ [NCPC] approved the site location for the memorial.
In (1913) ‘Ford’ began using standardized interchangeable parts and assembly-line techniques in his plant. Although ‘Ford’ neither originated nor was the first to employ such practices, he was chiefly responsible for their general adoption and for the consequent great expansion of ‘American’ industry and the raising of the ‘American’ standard of living.
By early (1914) this innovation, although greatly increasing productivity, had resulted in a monthly labor turnover of 40 to 60 percent in his factory, largely because of the unpleasant monotony of assembly-line work and repeated increases in the production quotas assigned to workers. ‘Ford’ met this difficulty by doubling the daily wage then standard in the industry, raising it from about $2.50 to $5. The net result was increased stability in his labor force and a substantial reduction in operating costs. These factors, coupled with the enormous increase in output made possible by new technological methods, led to an increase in company profits from $30 million in (1914) to $60 million in (1916).
In (1908) the ‘Ford’ company initiated production of the celebrated ‘Model T’. Until (1927), when the ‘Model T’ was discontinued in favor of a more up-to-date model, the company produced and sold about 15 million cars. Within the ensuing few years, however, ‘Ford’ preeminence as the largest producer and seller of automobiles in the nation was gradually lost to his competitors, largely because he was slow to adopt the practice of introducing a new model of automobile each year, which had become standard in the industry.
During the (1930) ‘Ford’ adopted the policy of the yearly changeover, but his company was unable to regain the position it had formerly held.
‘Marx Brothers’, five 20th-century ‘American’ comedians, born in ‘New York City’. The brothers were known by their professional names: ‘Chico Marx’ (born Leonard, 1891-1961), ‘Gummo Marx’ (Milton, 1892-1977), ‘Harpo Marx’ (Adolph, also known as Arthur, 1893-1964), ‘Groucho Marx’ (Julius, 1895-1977), and ‘Zeppo Marx’ (Herbert, 1901-1979).
The ‘Marx’ brothers began their careers in vaudeville as the ‘Nightingales’. Later the four oldest brothers appeared with their mother and aunt as the ‘Six Mascots’, then billed themselves as the ‘Marx Brothers’. (Zeppo, the youngest, replaced ‘Gummo’ in the act before the group became stars on ‘Broadway’ and in motion pictures). The brothers appeared in a number of film comedies noted chiefly for their zany sight gags. Such films include ‘Animal Crackers’ (1930), ‘Horse Feathers’ (1932), and ‘Duck Soup’ (1933). After ‘Zeppo’ retired in (1933), ‘Harpo’, ‘Chico’, and ‘Groucho’ appeared with great success in ‘A Night at the Opera’ (1935), ‘A Day at the Races’ (1937), and ‘Room Service’ (1938). Their last film as a team was ‘Love Happy’ (1950).
Each brother had readily identifiable characteristics. For example, ‘Groucho’ had a caustic wit and usually appeared with a cigar and mustache; ‘Chico’ spoke in an ‘Italian’ accent and played the piano; ‘Harpo’ communicated in pantomime and played the harp.
After the brothers ceased making films, ‘Groucho’ continued his entertainment career as master of ceremonies of the television series ‘You Bet Your Life’. He wrote the autobiographical ‘Groucho and Me’ (1959) and ‘Memoirs of a Mangy Lover’ (1964). ‘Harpo’ published his autobiography, ‘Harpo Speaks’, in (1961). The brothers inspired the musical ‘Minnie Boys’ (1970), which was coauthored by ‘Groucho’ son ‘Arthur’.
‘Apollo 11’ was the first lunar-landing mission. Launched on July 16 (1969), the crew of ‘Neil A. Armstrong’, ‘Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr.’, and ‘Michael Allen Collins’ flew the spacecraft ‘Columbia’ (CSM) and ‘Eagle’ (LM). On July 20 (1969), ‘Armstrong’ and ‘Aldrin’ landed the ‘Eagle’ at the relatively flat and unobstructed Tranquillity site on the ‘Moon’, while ‘Collins’ remained in the ‘CSM’.
The ‘LM’ spent 21 hours 36 minutes on the lunar surface, and the crew spent 2 hours 31 minutes outside the ‘LM’ in a local area excursion on foot to a distance of approximately 50 m (160 ft) from Tranquillity Base. ‘Armstrong’ and ‘Aldrin’ evaluated the capability of working on the lunar surface, established a small scientific station, and collected 22 kg (49 lb) of lunar rocks and soil.
Using the descent stage of the ‘LM’ as a launching platform, the ascent stage of the ‘LM’ took off from the ‘Moon’ surface to rendezvous and dock with the ‘CSM’. The spacecraft departed lunar orbit over two days after arrival. This eight-day mission landed and was recovered safely in the ‘Pacific Ocean’. As a precautionary measure, the astronauts were quarantined for 14 days.
In (1977) ‘Apple’ introduced the ‘Apple II’, a personal computer able to generate color graphics, with its own keyboard, power supply, and eight slots for peripheral devices, which gave users wide possibilities for add-on devices and software programs.
‘Apple’ established its corporate headquarters in ‘Cupertino’ in (1978). The ‘Apple III’ computer, introduced in (1980), sold poorly because of hardware problems and a high price. With ‘Apple II’ sales soaring, in (1982) ‘Apple’ became the first personal-computer company to record annual sales of $1 billion.
In (1983) ‘Apple’ introduced the ‘Lisa’, a personal computer designed for business use that incorporated a handheld mouse to select commands and control an on-screen cursor. The ‘Lisa’ was followed in (1984) by the ‘Macintosh’ personal computer, based on the 68000 microprocessor manufactured by ‘Motorola’. Like the ‘Lisa’, the ‘Macintosh’, also known as the ‘Mac’, incorporated a graphical user interface, which made the computer easy to operate for the novice user.
‘Apple’ entered the office market with the introduction of its ‘LaserWriter’ printer in (1985) and ‘Macintosh Plus’ computer in (1986), a combination that launched the desktop publishing revolution.
Although the company prospered in the early (1980), ‘Wozniak’ left ‘Apple’ in (1985) to start a company of his own. That same year disappointing sales and internal wrangling led to restructuring, the company’s first layoffs, and ‘Jobs’ departure from the company. ‘John Sculley’, whom ‘Jobs’ had hired in (1983) as ‘Apple’ president and chief executive officer, replaced ‘Jobs’ as chairman of the company’s board of directors.
The ‘September 11 Museum’ was dedicated on May 15 (2014). and opened to the public on May 21. Its exhibits include 23,000 images, 10,300 artifacts, nearly 2,000 oral histories of those killed – mostly provided by friends and families – and over 500 hours of video.
The underground museum has artifacts from ‘September 11’ (2001), including steel from the ‘Twin Towers’ (such as the final steel, the last piece of steel to leave Ground Zero in May 2002). It is built at the former location of Fritz Koenig ‘The Sphere’, a large metallic sculpture placed in the middle of a large pool between the ‘Twin Towers’. Battered but intact after the attacks, ‘The Sphere’ was moved to be displayed at ‘Battery Park’. In December (2011), museum construction halted temporarily due, according to the ‘Associated Press’, to disputes between the ‘Port Authority’ of ‘New York’ and ‘New Jersey’ and the ‘National September 11 Memorial and Museum Foundation’ over responsibility for infrastructure costs.
On March 13 (2012), talks on the issue began and construction resumed. After a number of false opening reports, it was announced that the museum would open to the public on May 21 (2014). The museum was dedicated on May 15 (2014). In attendance were a range of dignitaries, from ‘President Barack Obama’, former ‘President Bill Clinton’, former ‘Secretary of State Hillary Clinton’ and ‘New York Governor Andrew Cuomo’ to former mayors ‘David Dinkins’, ‘Rudy Giuliani’ and ‘Michael Bloomberg’ and current mayor ‘Bill de Blasio’. During the hour-long ceremony LaChanze sang “Amazing Grace”, which she dedicated to her husband (who was killed in the World Trade Center that day).
During the five days between its dedication and the public opening, over 42,000 first responders and family members of ‘9/11’ victims visited the museum. An opening ceremony for the museum was held on May 21, during which twenty-four police officers and firefighters unfurled the restored 30-foot (9.1 m) national ‘9/11’ flag before it was brought into the museum for permanent display. The gates surrounding the museum were then taken down, marking their first removal since the attacks. Opening-day tickets quickly sold out. Despite the museum’s design (to evoke memories without additional distress), counselors were available during its opening due to the large number of visitors.
On June 16, 2015, ‘Trump’ announced his candidacy for President of the ‘United States’ at ‘Trump Tower’ in ‘New York City’. ‘Trump’ drew attention to domestic issues such as illegal immigration, offshoring of American jobs, the ‘U.S.’ national debt, and Islamic terrorism, and announced his campaign slogan, “Make America Great Again”.
‘Trump’ runs as a self-described conservative, particularly in fiscal and religious matters. His campaign emphasises ‘American patriotism’, with a disdain for political correctness. ‘Trump’ is the second major-party presidential nominee in ‘American’ history whose experience comes principally from running a business (Wendell Willkie was the first). If elected, ‘Trump’ would become the first ‘U.S.’ President without prior government or military experience. In part due to ‘Trump’ lack of political experience, ‘Republican’ leaders such as ‘House Speaker’ ‘Paul Ryan’ were hesitant to support him early on, doubting his chances of winning the general election and fearing he could harm to the image of the ‘Republican Party’.
However, ‘Trump’ candidacy succeeded with ‘Republican’ primary voters, partly because of widespread media coverage, his status as a political outsider, his defiance of political correctness, and his experience in business. ‘Trump’ extensive platform has frequently changed throughout his campaign trail.
In his ‘RNC’ acceptance speech, ‘Trump’ promised to combat illegal immigration by building a wall along the U.S.–Mexico border, reform healthcare by repealing and replacing Obamacare, rebuild the U.S. military while improving veterans’ care, veto trade agreements that are unfavorable to ‘American’ workers, and tackle ‘Islamic’ terrorism by defeating ‘ISIS’ and suspending immigration from countries that have been compromised by terrorism until the government has perfected its ability to screen out potential terrorists.